Sunday, May 24, 2020
Effective communication through person centered care are essential for health profession, specifically in nursing care. Mueller (2016) noted that it occurs mainly through transaction modes where the patient and the nurse are on common grounds through mutual understanding. The competent communication practice of Person centered care allows the nurse to recognize patients as people and not by their illness. Moreover, person centered care satisfies patients by providing informational support to them and their families. In addition, to form a client -nurse relationship, therapeutic communication accentuates the care provider, through non-verbal, verbal and cultural norms. Lastly self-awareness allows the nurse to be aware of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Health facilities aim to achieve client satisfaction of care through every health profession worker despite directly providing care or not. As the patient, subjective experience will define the patient perception ac ross the continuum care. Consequently, person centered care technique through communication enables the nurse to give more effective nursing care to patients. As everyone in the healthcare service works in partnership, to deliver care responsive to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s individual abilities, needs, preferences and goals. I agree that valuing the satisfaction of clients and providing, validating information and care contributes to the positive experience of client within health facilities. Because if there is a limited access of care to clients, especially when they were waiting in an emergency or the surgery ward for a long period of time. They become anxious and frustrated as they are people just like us. on top of that the limited information provided to families and patients causes them to become uncertain about the plan of treatment. therefore, perceive that they have no control within the health facility and feel unvalued. Therapeutic communication aims to accentuate understanding of the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s situations to health professionals, to achieve a greater outcome of health. It focuses on the clients need not the nurses. Pontes (2008) notes that health professionals verbally communicate with clarity and brevityShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Nursing Communication In Nursing1291 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstudy is nursing communication in the ICU. The research problem is explicitly stated in the article. The researchers established the significance of this problem through statements detailing the importance of quality communication. Examples include Ã¢â¬Å"communication is the primary mechanism that health care providers, patients, and patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ families use to share information, elicit preferences, convey assessments and plans, and make decisions,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"research on nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ communication. These statementsRead MoreSuccessful Patient Centered Medical Homes And Hmos1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Successful Patient Centered Medical Homes and HMOs Richard Jenkins Trident University Ã¢â¬Æ' Abstract There are various models designed to enhance the quality of health care provided in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. Within the health care system the objective is to provide quality care to the patient is the primary goal, however, over time due to such a strong concentration on this objective expenses have been forgotten. Medical care has now grown to a ridiculous expense. Congress, medical professionalsRead MoreMy Personal Experience Of The Nursing Experience In Nursing1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessatisfaction for the patients. PROFESSIONALISM Communication skills are very crucial to every nurse. I learned that as a nurse, I would be dealing with professional, personal, and workplace relationships. I will be the person who will spend most of the time with the patient; Therefore, I will be expected to communicate with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family members and other medical professionals regarding the patient care. For this reason, effective communication is crucial because it prevents medical errorsRead MoreGender Issues And Health Care Provider Knowledge / Communication997 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGender Issues and Health Care Provider Knowledge/Communication Patient-Provider Communication is a Public Health Problem Public health is concerned with protecting and improving the health of entire populations, whether through education and promotion of healthy lifestyles, research for disease and injury prevention, detection and control of infectious diseases, or changes in public policy.1 The patient-provider encounter is an important point of access between the patient population and the healthcareRead MoreThe Person Centered Care ( Jackson And Irwin Essay1739 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPerson centred nursing care has been long associated with nursing and is a term which is recognised globally. It is used to describe the standard of care, which ensures a person/patient is at the centre at all times, and is involved in all aspects of their care and decision-making. Nurses and nursing staff alike provide, encourage and promote care that puts people at the centre at all times which includes patients, their families, their carers and helps them make informed choices about their treatmentRead MoreExploring B iographical Knowledge Into The Daily Routine And Care Of An Individual With Dementia1004 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfocus of this study was to explore how incorporating biographical knowledge into the daily routine and care of an individual with dementia can bring about changes in their behaviors that impact quality of care and quality of life. This chapter assembles the major findings of the study, considers the unique contribution to the research and practice of the care of people with dementia in a long term care setting. The implications for further research discussed as well as limitations of the study consideredRead MoreThe Impact Of Patient Centered Care On Quality Of Patient Care1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of Patient-Centered Care on Quality of Patient Care Rachel Stoller, RN Robert Morris University Ã¢â¬Æ' What would happen if patients were able to create their own healthcare experience? What would it look like? How would they benefit? I plan to discuss these hypotheticals through research regarding Patient-Centered Care. After all, studies and surveys performed by the Institute of Medicine and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, read that engaged patients in any health care setting, have betterRead MoreEffective Communication As A Health Care Professional1313 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCommunication is about more than just exchanging information. It s about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. Effective communication is how you convey a message so that it is received and understood by someone in exactly the way you intended (L. Robinson, J. Segal, Ph. D., M. Smith. 2015). This paper looks at the requirements of effective communication as a health care professional and the essential concepts to have as a registered nurse. Effective communication assistsRe ad MoreStrategies to Enhance Therapeutic Communication Between Healthcare Professionals and Children1662 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTherapeutic Communication Between Healthcare Professionals and Children. Clear and appropriate communication with children is important for the healthcare professional and patient alike. These skills in communication help build rapport, ease the childÃ¢â¬â¢s anxiety and put fear to bed. Mansson and Dykes (2004) stated that fear complicates a childÃ¢â¬â¢s life, in a clinical setting the healthcare professional can be the one to remove that fear through the use of effective therapeutic communication. What areRead MoreHorizontal Violence and Staff Morale Essay1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhen one goes into the profession of nursing it is usually not for the money, job security or the glamour of the job. Those of us who chose nursing as our profession generally care for others and want to make a difference in the world. New nurses are excited to become licensed and to start working in the profession of nursing. When new nurses enter the field of nursing, they are often met with more experienced nurses who have practiced longer and subsequently has more e xperience. This maybe an
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
A strong bond between a father and son is critical for a healthy relationship. In almost every culture there is a strong emphasis on father-son relationships. Growing up every boy admires his father and aspires to be just like him, hence the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Like father, like son.Ã¢â¬ This puts a significant amount of pressure on the father, forcing him to be a good role model for his son. However, many fathers fail to be a positive role model for their sons which can skew their perception of an ideal father figure. In the poems Ã¢â¬Å"My PapaÃ¢â¬â¢s WaltzÃ¢â¬ written by Theodore Roethke and Ã¢â¬Å"Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-second YearÃ¢â¬ written by Raymond Carver the theme of a father-son relationship is central to both poems. These two poems are both similarÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Of course there is no wrong interpretation of this poem however it leans more toward a positive tone about a father-son relationship that is full of love. The second poem is Ra ymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Photograph of My Father in His Twenty-second Year.Ã¢â¬ This Poem is about a son, who is all grown up, that has returned to his childhood home where he has discovered a picture of his father. Upon discovering this picture the narrator is reminded of his relationship with his father when he was young. This poem is broken down into three stanzas. In the first stanza and the first half of the second stanza the narrator is describing his father appearance. Carver writes, Ã¢â¬Å"I study my father s embarrassed young man s face / Sheepish grin, he holds in one hand a string / of spiny yellow perch, in the other / a bottle of Carlsbad Beer (lines 1-5). Ã¢â¬Å"In jeans and denim shirt, he leans / against the front fender of a 1934 FordÃ¢â¬ (lines 6-7). The narrator tells us that his father dressed this way in order to appear as more Ã¢â¬Å"manlyÃ¢â¬ and as a better father figure. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"He would like to pose bluff and hearty for his posterity, / Wear his old hat cocked over his ear. / All his life my father wanted to be bold. / But the eyes give him away, and the hands / hat limply offer the string of dead perchÃ¢â¬ (lines 8-12). It is at the end
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Riveter Looking at this war poster as a whole looks very normal to many viewers (it contains a statement which states Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! Ã¢â¬ in white letters with a blue background). It also contains two main colors; blue and yellow. Rosie the riveter is the main person in the ad, along with the main subject. We will write a custom essay sample on We Can Do It! or any similar topic only for you Order Now She is wearing a blue collar shirt, an orange and white hair scarf and a collar button. At the bottom of the ad is a large W letter underlined which stands for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights ( womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right logo is right underneath the letter W). Along with the letter is a war production committee logo in the right orner. With this statement in the ad and Rosie the riveter as the main subject a viewer can tell that the poster was used in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. During this time, many male workers were off fighting in the war, causing females to begin working in the factories. Soon after males returned home they desired females to return to their home making Jobs. Enjoying the new freedom, females were very doubtful about returning to house making Jobs. This ad explains how color portrays masculinity, how the statement Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! in this ad expresses the emotions, struggles and goals of females during the war time and Rosie the riveter showing her muscles, ymbolizes power. The background of this ad uses colors to portray deeper meanings to its viewers. The naw blue color behind the statement Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! Ã¢â¬ explains the false statement that it takes masculinity to work in factories. For many years males were the only workers working in factories, so custom to tradition it was abnormal to think that females had the ability to work in factories. Leading to the letters Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do ItÃ¢â¬ to be written in white bold letters on top of the naw blue. The white bold letters are symbolizing the purity in the work force, females in factories. Females at his time wanted to work in factories and not return to the house making Jobs. Another color seen throughout this ad is bright yellow. The main color is yellow; yellow symbolizes a storm. The storm for females at this time was being stuck, stuck in a position on a house maker, a mother and a wife. Females going to work in factories and saying Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! was busting through the typical role of a house maker and allowed females to pass through the storm of being stuck. The statement Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! Ã¢â¬ in this ad expresses the emotions, struggles and goals of females during the war time. Women at this time were struggling to come out of the typical female role as a house maker and show that as females they could work Just as hard as males. Struggling to overco me traditional stereotypes brought out many emotions in females. With all these emotions females started to make goals and statements around the world. In this ad right under the words Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do It! Ã¢â¬ Rosie the riveter has a very serious and emotional look on her face. Having a serious look on her face is stating that females were done feeling inferior and unimportant to society, tired of being doubted by the males of th e world. Along with her serious look, Rosie the iveter was wearing make-up and a hair bandana. The hair bandana and make-up are displaying that with all the statements about working Just as hard as males and tired of feeling inferior, females can still be females. Rosie the riveter is showing her muscle in this ad to symbolize power. Half of her sleeve is rolled up to symbolize what nas already started and what is yet to come, temale power. Following ner arm down to her hand, she shows a closed fist. Her fist displays two things; fghting action towards those who will try to stand in her way and a closed mind to her opinion as if no one can tell her what she is doing is wrong. Along with showing her muscles and fist, she also has a female power button on her collar. This button shows strength in numbers since sheÃ¢â¬â¢s visually saying that it takes more than one person to change the image of females and roles they play. In addition to the button, Rosie has a blue collar shirt verse a white collar shirt. The blue collar shirt stands for manual labor working. Manual labor working is what females wanted at this time, not to work as a major or a white collar worker. As we can see with posters like this, symbolism is shown throughout images all around. To fully understand ads and posters ometimes you have to dig a little deeper for true meanings. Rosie the riveter helps explain the message females wanted to convey at this time, to work in factories along with males. This poster helps explain not only what it says, Ã¢â¬Å"We Can Do ItÃ¢â¬ but also the struggle, goals and emotions that females had during this time. With showing emotions, struggles and goals, this ad also visual explains the power females had. Knowing the struggle females had during the war time, makes me appreciate being a female even more. Work Cited Ã¢â¬Å"Rosie the Riveter. Ã¢â¬ 2011.. Online Image. Women Working During World War 2. Web. 23 Oct How to cite We Can Do It!, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Adolescence and Social Determinants Method. Answer: Introduction: The impact of various influential determinants of health and the impacts that this influential determinants can facilitate on the status of public health has been investigated quite a few times by the researchers. The common verdict out of the extensive research that has been carried out indicated at the alarming nature of the determinants being able to alter both the health status and health outcomes. Hence a variety of models have been developed in an attempt to characterize or standardize the impact of the different range of determinants on health and health in general. One of the most relevant, applicable and abundantly used health determinant analysis model determinants of health model management, developed by the Dahlgren and Whitehead in the year of 1981 (Montano Kasprzyk, 2015). This model utilizes the broad concepts of different social or socio-ecological determinants and the most appreciative factor with this model is the fact that it discusses or evaluates the impact of each group of influential determinants in layers of effect. The authors have attempted to link the theory of social ecology with the concept of health, and attempts to analyse and evaluate the relationship of an individual, his health and the environment. There are four layers of determinants with their individual impact is analysed. The first layer is personal behaviour, the second layer is social and community influences, the third is structural factors and the last layer is general socio-economic, environmental and cultural influences (DiClemente, Salazar Crosby, 2013). As mentioned above, there can be a number of different factors can contribute to the health of different individuals. However the extent of the influence or even the pattern of influence depends heavily on the lifestyle, socio-economic status and living conditions of the individual concerned. Although, these influential components can be easily characterized or evaluated with the help of health determinant models. The determinants model of health can be one of the most applicable models of health to assess or analyse the impact of different social or socio-ecological determinants on the health conditions of any individual. The model by Dahlgren and whitehead uses a very broad concept of determinants which can be very easily applied to any particular situation; hence I would use this model to reflect upon my own health influences. However in my case the only layers of determinants applicable are layer three and four. In case of layer three, the structural element of my life comprises of sectors like living and working conditions, as I am an aspiring heath care professionals the exposure to health abnormalities can have a significant impact on my health and along with that the living conditions of mine has also a significant impact with the fact that I live in a highly congested and polluted area. The general socio-economic factor also applies to my situation as I belong to a particular ethnic background and with limited financial resources. Hence, the health care services accessible are also limited for my native background, and the lack of adequate cultural safety also limits my health acre experience (Babitsch, Gohl von Lengerke, 2012). Health behaviours can be defined as the set of traditional beliefs or principles that are applied in order for health promotion or prevention of any disease. There can be a various range of health behaviours and the health behaviours of an individual is generally influenced by the cultural and religious background or personal lifestyle choices. In regards to my own native ethnic background the health behaviours that I exhibit are also heavily influenced by my cultural beliefs and traditions. The health behaviour that I would like to mention here is the lack of or low level of physical activity that is very common and conspicuous for native Australian communities. According to the recent statistics shared almost 18% of the aboriginal individuals exhibit non-existent levels of physical activity. There are various factors that contribute to this particular health behaviour, first and foremost the lack of financial stability limit the time available to contribute to physical fitness sess ions and activities. Along with that, most of the aboriginal communities engage in handicrafts and handmade object manufacturing as earning options and therefore, with the most of the day spent in it the time for physical activity is limited. The lack of health literacy and knowledge regarding the need for physical activity to avoid certain health conditions also contribute to this particular health behaviour management (Braveman Gottlieb, 2014). A behaviour change theory can easily be applied to this scenario is order to overcome this health behaviour and change it for the better. It has to be understood that a health behaviours is associated with socio-economic conditions, lifestyle and health literacy or in some cases the traditional beliefs and understanding. The theory of reasoned action can be implied to this scenario, this theory attempts to link the change in behaviour with making the person responsible for the behaviour understand the consequences of their behaviour. Similarly, in this case, the lack of health literacy and understanding of consequences of the health behaviours have contributed to the establishment of this particular health behaviour. Health education and empowerment sessions employed can help in meeting the gaps in literacy and incorporating reasonable judgement in the natives that will propel them towards changing their behaviour for the better (Sallis, Owen Fisher, 2015). The obesity prevention program in place in the Australia takes into consideration the unequal distribution of obesity related health problem in the socio-economic minority groups like the aboriginals. The health promotional strategy to combat obesity related issues attempts to explore the key contributing factors behind the prevalent health behaviour contributing to the rise in obesity and target those to reduce obesity and promote healthy living in the minority groups (gov.au., 2017). The actions taken to improve health and reduce obesity include making the participants aware of the consequences of obesity and take logical decisions that will improve their health status and reduce bodyweight affectively; these actions will include dietary changes, physical exercise regime and frequent clinical assessment. Now according to theory of reasoned action, a behavioural change theory, knowledge incorporates reasonable decision making in the individuals. The aboriginals and their vastly lack ing health literacy and scientific reason regarding health promotional and preventative activities have contributed to the rise in obesity largely, incorporating knowledge and reason to the strategy in accordance with theory o reasoned action targets the health behaviour change efficiently (Dolatian et al., 2013). The Ottawa charter can be described as the health promotional framework introduced by WHO globally as an international agreement. There are five separate areas of action for the Ottawa charter that target each of the health promotional needs of the world. Among the 5 action areas, strengthening community actions relates to this scenario as it targets each of the minority groups and their health abnormalities associated with obesity. The second action that relates is Re-orienting health care services toward prevention of illness and promotion of health as prevention of obesity and promotional strategy for improving good health practices that can reduce obesity is implemented in the program (gov.au., 2017). References: Babitsch, B., Gohl, D., von Lengerke, T. (2012). Re-revisiting Andersens Behavioral Model of Health Services Use: a systematic review of studies from 19982011.GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine,9. Braveman, P., Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes.Public Health Reports,129(1_suppl2), 19-31. DiClemente, R. J., Salazar, L. F., Crosby, R. A. (2013).Health behavior theory for public health. Jones Bartlett Publishers. Dolatian, M., Mirabzadeh, A., Forouzan, A. S., Sajjadi, H., Majd, H. A., Moafi, F. (2013). Preterm delivery and psychosocial determinants of health based on World Health Organization model in Iran: a narrative review.Global journal of health science,5(1), 52. health.gov.au (2017). Obesity prevention strategy. Retrieved 26 October 2017, from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/preventativehealth/publishing.nsf/Content/E233F8695823F16CCA2574DD00818E64/$File/obesity-3.pdf Montano, D. E., Kasprzyk, D. (2015). Theory of reasoned action, theory of planned behavior, and the integrated behavioral model.Health behavior: Theory, research and practice management. Sallis, J. F., Owen, N., Fisher, E. (2015). Ecological models of health behavior.Health behavior: theory, research, and practice. 5th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 43-64. Viner, R. M., Ozer, E. M., Denny, S., Marmot, M., Resnick, M., Fatusi, A., Currie, C. (2012). Adolescence and the social determinants of health.The Lancet,379(9826), 1641-1652.
Tuesday, March 31, 2020
About Nickel Dimed Paper Barbara EhrenreichÃ¢â¬â¢s non-fiction bestseller, Nickel and Dimed, is the story of an essay writer who went undercover as a low wage worker to find out how non-skilled workers make ends meet. The experiment took place in Florida, Maine, and Minnesota, with the author finding a job and lodgings in each location. The experiment was to be held for one month in each location, working full time and living only off the amount of money earned in low-wage jobs. The goal was to determine whether or not the author could both live off the money earned and have enough money at the end of the month to pay the next monthÃ¢â¬â¢s rent. The purpose of EhrenreichÃ¢â¬â¢s book is simply to determine if she Ã¢â¬Å"could match income to expenses, as the truly poor attempt to do every day. Ã¢â¬ Working different jobs in restaurants, a hotel, a nursing home, a cleaning service, and at a major retailer Ehrenreich finds the truth Ã¢â¬â it is nearly impossible to match income and expense on wage income. Her research shows that a strong Ã¢â¬Å"work ethicÃ¢â¬ is often not enough to provide necessities like shelter, food, and transportation. We will write a custom essay sample on About Nickel Dimed specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on About Nickel Dimed specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on About Nickel Dimed specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For people who work in restaurants, hotels, retail stores, and other service jobs the pay is simply not enough to work your way up the ladder of success. Barbara undertakes life as a person that earns poverty-level wages. The book is a real eye opener to what you can actually do for six to seven dollars an hour. The theme of this book is, from my view, you never realize what you have until it is gone. People all across the United States of America live without some of our necessities because they cant afford much more than shelter and food. Barbara shows in this book that living on minimum wage is possible, but barely. My analysis of the theme in this book is very important for people to see and understand that the group of people who earn the bare minimum wage is probably what you wouldnt suspect. Most Americans believe all those who are poor and homeless are those without a job, only surviving on a little amount received through governmental aid. But in this book, we learn that is no always true. People can still have a job living in the same conditions as someone who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a job. They can just have very low-wage jobs. These low-wage jobs hourly pay from the $5. 15 mandatory minimum to the mere but reputable $10 wage. At this salary one may not seem noticeably poor, however factor in the needed expenses of housing, food, childcare, and transportation, one may dwindle into poverty. With an increasing amount of low wage workers from such communities as those of welfare recipients, the employment opportunity is becoming scarce forcing one to migrate in order to accomplish the best salary, leaving a more stressful lifestyle with many more hardships to endure.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Good Manufacturing Practices Introduction Good manufacturing practices are the set guideline that outlines the process of manufacturing and testing to enhance on the quality of the pharmaceutical drugs (Moynihan 2003). This set of regulations and guidelines must be strictly followed although in some areas, to encourage innovation there is some latitude offered as long as the following steps are followed and documented:Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Good Manufacturing Practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ensure raw materials are of quality. Record detailing the whole process of manufacturing should be kept High standards of cleanliness should be maintained Confirm the qualifications of the manufacturing personnel. Do in house testing immediate after manufacture. Ensure that high standards are maintained in the production processes. Maintain proper channels of storage as well as of distribution (Finn 1999). The process involved in changi ng of the drugs The actual stage of manufacture is the last stage in the pharmaceutical drug production. Thus to change the profile content of an existing drug is treated the same as manufacturing because the side effects of this new ingredients are not yet known. This process requires strict and rigorous documentation for the drug to comply with the good manufacturing process. Recording of the entire manufacturing process is mandatory because the records can be used in the case of a problem or when challenged by legal hurdles (Leape 1994). The first documents involved are the research documents. Before any pharmaceutical drugs are manufactured for public use, research must be undertaken. First in the labs to ensure that, they will work for the intended purposes. This is done by testing the compounds that are thought to contain substrates that can help to combat or help to alleviate the symptoms of the disease the drug is intended. The process is complicated and can be achieved usin g many methods including use of computer simulation or testing the combinations nature if different compounds. At this point, the research findings must be documented and the total RD funds used in the process documented as well. The handling of the new material should be handled with care and should be treated as raw materials until all the tests have been concluded. The raw materials should be tested to ensure that they comprise of the required substrates The QC manager should be able determine their origin and method of manufacture. This is because the sources could be natural or synthetic (Rang, et al. 2003). This is because most of the raw materials that had been produced naturally in the past now are now being produced synthetically. Their production process production should be investigated by the QC manager to ensure that it is up to all the standards set out by the drug controlling body of the respective country. He should ensure that the raw materials are also inclusive of active pharmaceutical ingredients that are pharmaceutically safe and that they contain the desired effects on the body (Ray 2003).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After being certain that, the raw materials are well according to standards, the next step should be the production of the sample of the drugs so that they can be used for testing and for obtainment of a license. After the manufacture of the sample, the testing of the drug is ready and can be done (Ray and Alan 2005). Testing of the drug The testing of the drug is carried out through drug trials where a sample of people are administered the drugs and the effects it has on the people recorded for further analysis. The first step in the testing is the use of preclinical studies. These are done in vitro tubes or on animal and cell structure experiments (Ruesch 1991). The next step is the use of a small numb er of volunteers to investigate whether the drug has any therapeutic effect on the human body as was expected. This stage does not deal with safety or even the efficacy of the drug (Ruesch 1992). Phase 1 involves using groups of about 20-100 healthy volunteers to establish the safeness of the drug and also the total time the body can absorb and make use of it. The stage also include dose ranging so that the exact amount of dose that be used for therapeutic purposes is established. Payments of the volunteers are done according to the agreed amount and the time spent on the testing facilities. The other stage of testing involves the use of a large number of patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ volunteers. They test on the drug to establish how effective it is against the symptoms of the disease, the amounts of the doses that are effective and the side effects that might occur. The final stage involves the use of a large number of volunteers to test the drug. At this point the effective nature of the drug is investigated as well as the side effects that can occur in the event of the usage of the drug. After the success of this stage, then the drug is licensed and given a trademark name ready to be sold to the public ( Burgos 1986). Impurity profiles Impurities are common in drugs because they are also part of the ingredients used in their manufacturing process and purity tests must be undertaken to ensure their complete elimination. The most famous and effective is the use of chromatography that separates the impurities from the real ingredients if they are any available (Braithwaite 1984).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Good Manufacturing Practices specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More After the impurities have been identified, ways should be formulated to ensure their removal and also to minimize their effects on the drug. This should be by elimination of some of the manufacturing practices that are practiced in the f irm. There should be manufacture of fine crystals while the process of isolation, the drying of the tablets should be done by a vacuum dryer and finely stability studies should be undertaken and detailed investigations on the process of preparation (Barnett 2003). How to ensure high quality products are produced To ensure that high quality products are produced, quality control should be applied at every stage of manufacture. This is to make sure that there is early identification of any production problems especially the weakness of the drugs. If a problem is identified then, production should stop and the problem determined (Baker 1994). Conclusion Good manufacturing practices are guidelines which are set for the safety of the public while using the pharmaceutical drugs. The entire process should be adhered to ensure that only quality kinds of drugs are available to the public. There have been cases of some pharmaceutical companies using undue methods to get their drugs approved b ut later these drugs cause some un repairable damage or even death. The governing body such as the FDA in the United States should that the process is strictly followed and only quality drugs are licensed for sale. References Baker, A., 1994. Awakening Our Self-Healing Body A Solution to the Health Care Crisis. California: Self Health Care Systems, LA. Barnett, A., 2003. Revealed: how drug firms hoodwink medical journals. London: The Observer.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Braithwaite, J., 1984. Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry. London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Burgos, J., 1986. Hidden Crimes (Film), SUPRESS. California: Pasadena. Finn, R., 1999. Cancer Clinical Trials: Experimental Treatments and How They Can Help You. Sebastopol: OReilly Associates. Leape, L., 1994. Error in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 272 (23), p. 1851. Moynihan, R., 2003. Who pays for the pizza? Redefining the relationships between doctors and drug companies. 2: Disentanglement. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326 (7400), pp. 1193Ã¢â¬â1196. Rang, et al., 2003. Pharmacology 5 ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Ray, M., 2003. Drug company sponsorship of education could be replaced at a fraction of its cost. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326 (7400), p.1163. Ray, M. and Alan, C., 2005. Selling Sickness: How Drug Companies are Turning Us All Into Patients. Allen Unwin. New York. Ruesch, H., 1991. Slaughter of the Innocent. Hartsdale N Y: CIVITAS Publications. Ruesch, H., 1992. Naked Empress the Great Medical Fraud, CIVIS. Switzerland: Massagno/Lugano.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
In the news 2 - Assignment Example ed people have been united with their families and the news that the leader of the group had was to be re-united with her grandson elicited emotions in Argentina. Forces that were allied to the government kidnapped babies between 1976 and 1983 in the course of military autocracy which was one of the murkiest eras in a time that was entitled the Dirty war. CarlottoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter was part of a guerilla group when she was arrested and imprisoned in 1977at a time when she was almost three months pregnant. She had to give birth to her so at a military hospital and she was returned to her cell without her baby and later executed. The dictatorship took away CarlottoÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter and she had no idea what had happened to her grandson even though she kept her hope. The grandson who was reunited with his grandmother is a 36 years old who is named Ignacio Hurban and works as a music director in a school in Olavarria but initially had doubts concerning the story of his life which led him to contact the grandmothers with the story of his life where he submitted DNA. After the DNA was tested, it was found to be a 99.99 percent match even though the first time the grandson had doubts are not clear. The president of Argentina was among the people who called the grandmother after the news of finding her grandson had been revealed to